Use of Calcium Carbonate

as a Drilling Fluid Additive



Who is Carmeuse?


• Largest lime (CaO) producer in North America


•  Top 10 largest limestone (CaCO3) producer in U.S.


• Eight pulverized/screen-grade limestone production sites in N.A.


• Oilfield Products Laboratory in Pittsburgh PA



Calcium Carbonate  FAB Statement


•  Features

    .Limestone, marble

    .Milled or screened

    .Specific gravity (Rel. Density)

    .Particle size distribution…particle packing

    .Acid soluble

    .Readily available



•  Advantages

    .Densifies drilling fluid

    .Controls circulation loss

    .Prevents formation damage



•  Benefits


    .Cost effective







CaCO3…How it’s Used?


• Sold to service cos., then formulated (or blended on-site)


• Packaged (50 lb - 3000 lb)


• Purchased at corporate level


• Small portion of drilling fluid cost




Drilling Fluids


•  Drilling fluid, aka “mud,” is added to the wellbore to facilitate drilling:

    .Suspend cuttings

    .Control pressure

    .Stabilize exposed rock

    .Provide casing buoyancy

    .Cool & lubricate


•  Types:



    .Synthetic oil-based


•  Cost:

  ~ 10% of the well drilling




Weighing Agent


•  Used to increase density of drilling fluid:

    .finely divided solid

    .high specific gravity


•  Fluid density required to:

    .Maintain borehole stability

    .Control formation pressures

    .Prevent penetration of formation fluids

    .Facilitate pulling dry pipe


•  Calcium Carbonate:

    .Can be removed during well completion, minimizing formation damage









Drill-in Fluids


Reservoir drilling fluid aka “drill-in fluid”…

    .Minimize formation damage when drilling into the “payzone”

    .Calcium Carbonate added to:

        -Form a “bridge” or “filter cake” over formation pores

        -Prevent migration of particles into the reservoir


  Then remove with acid or chelant at a later stage



Optimum Bridging Agent  Blend






























Lost Circulation Material (LCM)


•  Added to drilling fluid to prevent loss of fluid due to fractures in the formation


•  OR as a “pill” treatment to seal fractures where significant losses have already occurred



•  Forms:

    .Flake (mica)

    .Granular (DE, Calcium Carbonate)

    .Other (Gilsonite®)

    .Chemical (polymer thickening agents)



•  Calcium Carbonate builds a filter cake at the entrance of the fracture to seal it up


Lost Circulation Material (LCM)































Oil Well Cement


•  Cementing a well- pumping cement into place in a wellbore

    .Used to prepare for further drilling, production or abandonment


•  Lost circulation addressed via Calcium Carbonate

   .Placement of a “pill” to seal the loss zones before cementing OR

    .Bridging/plugging agent into the cement slurry itself



•  Acid Soluble Cement (Shale Gas)


   .Calcium Carbonate …component of cement


    .After frac’ing, broken cement pieces plug casing holes


    .Pump acid into casing to dissolve the cement (CaCO3) pieces








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